Saturday, 12 March 2022


I’m thrilled to announce the release of my new book: Sue Ward’s Collected Essays: Reflections on Traditional Astrology. Written primarily to support Sue Ward’s Traditional Horary Course the 21 essays in this volume represent some 40 years of study and practise, and the deep and prolonged thought always required in the study of astrology. However, for a working astrologer and teacher, this understanding cannot remain as meditations, they must become manifest and be put to good use. In this collection, those reflections are explained and applied in order to assist others who might want to develop a deeper understanding of the traditional astrological system and the early modern method as espoused by William Lilly (1602-1681).

The video launch is linked below with the Amazon link.

Sue Ward’s Collected Essays: Reflections on Traditional Astrology

ISBN: 9798413835210

Launch video link: link:
Facebook: Sue Ward astrologer
Twitter: @susanward
YouTube channel: suewardastrologer

Thursday, 23 September 2021


Enrolments are now being taken for The Traditional Horary Course, which is available in its new format of live online classes starting on 5 October 2021.

Details of classes and syllabus are available at . Enquiries to


Its accompanying textbook, Sue Ward’s Traditional Horary Course, is also hot off the press and available at Amazon (ISBN: 9798477494156). Well over 350 pages of lessons and example charts which form an encyclopaedic explanation of the techniques of William Lilly’s teaching and practice. 

An excellent resource for all astrologers.


There is a video launch of the course and book accessible now on my YouTube channel (suewardastrologer) that offers some extra information.


Also available now in Australia, UK, Spain, France, Italy, Canada, Germany, Japan.

Wednesday, 4 August 2021

 Talking Horary Workshops

I’m afraid that I'm unable to open up the registrations for the horary workshops on 7 and 21 August 2021, because they are now full


However, they will be recorded; if you let me know that you are interested in them, I'll contact you when the recordings are ready. The details are in my previous post.


Please register your interest by contacting me in the first instance: . 


Those who have already registered will receive an email with the Zoom link today (Wednesday). If you have not received your e-mail by then please let me know.

Also, the recording of Sunday's lecture is now available at suewardastrologer on YouTube

I'm looking forward to working with you all!

Thursday, 22 July 2021

 Sue Ward Talking Horary


This is a series of occasional lectures, seminars, and workshops with Sue Ward, initially focused on the judgement of horary charts using the traditional method of William Lilly. Later in the year, workshops will be offered relating to natal work.


Zoom Lecture

Sue Ward Talking Horary: from the sublime to the ridiculous.

A one-hour lecture examining a number of horary questions from William Lilly’s busy practice. Health, children, law, inheritance, death are all subjects that will be addressed in this lecture.


The lecture will be held at 6.30 pm BST, Sunday, 1 August 2021.


It is free to attend but registration is required because of limits on numbers. 


Please register your interest by contacting and you will be sent the Zoom link in due course.


Please check your time zone before registering.


Zoom workshops 

Sue Ward Talking Horary I & II

In these two workshops, I shall be showing you a few hints and tips for judging horary questions in varying contexts. You will be given charts to work on in the workshop and we will all discuss the results. We will examine questions about marriage, inheritance, love, career, health, buying land, lost animals, theft, politics, absent husbands, moving house, fugitives, war, death. 


Each workshop will last for two hours to allow plenty of time for discussion and the fee is £20 per person. You will be asked to pay at registration following a PayPal link and the Zoom link will then be sent to you by email.


The workshops will be recorded for those who cannot attend in person, the fee for which is £15 per person. The link will be sent by email. Please contact:




I. at 6.30 BST, Saturday 7 August 2021


II. at 6.30 BST, Saturday 21 August 2021



Please check your time zone before registering.

Saturday, 27 March 2021

Christian Astrology 1659 is NOT an edition

 When digitized versions of texts of various sorts became available, I found William Lilly’s Christian Astrology online in a second edition of 1659. I had never heard of this edition; I was well-versed in Lilly’s Autobiography where he never mentioned a second edition being published. I looked at this edition of course and it looked identical and when I checked internally it was identical as far as I could see. Those who have a copy of Christian Astrology 1647 (Regulus edition) will know that there are some pages early in the book that have been mixed up: pages (as printed) 170 and 171 are, in fact, pages 174 and 175. This error is identical in the 1659 edition, where it would have been possible and desirable to correct this. There is also an errata sheet that came with the Regulus facsimile edition of 1985. On checking these errata, they remain uncorrected in the 1659 version. The only apparent difference is that the title page is slightly altered: where the 1647 edition has at the bottom of the page: ‘Printed by Tho. Brudenell for John Partridge and Humph. Blunden, in Blackfriers at the Gate going into  Carter-lane, and in Cornhil, 1647.’, the 1659 copy has: ‘Printed by JOHN MACOCK. 1659.’


It is well known that Lilly was dissatisfied with the 1647 edition; from page 830:


Behold now this Nativity judged, which if thou are courteous, thou hast reason to accept kindly of, being it leads thee to do the like upon any: It had appeared exquisite, but the angry Angell of God visited my house with the Plague, even at that time when I was perfecting the latter part of my Book, and also this Nativity:




My great affliction at present conclusion of this Work, bids thee accept my good will, and passe by my very many imperfections in the preceding Treatises, having advised with no man living in any thing comprehended in all the three Books.


Finitur Die [Mercury] September 8 1647. 5.30, P.M. that very day five weeks my house was first shut up.


Clearly, he would want to revise the book. In our research for ‘Monster of Ingratitude’ regarding John Gadbury’s hatred of William Lilly, Peter Stockinger and I had to read many of Lilly’s almanacs, and we found the following in his almanac for 1656 (Merlini Anglici Ephemeris), he writes this in the penultimate page:


we hear our Introduction unto Astrology [Lilly’s name for Christian Astrology] is reprinting; if it be so, its without our Knowledge, Consent or Owning; we intended, and intend a serious review and enlargement thereof, upon a second Impression, if ever be by our Consent. But the malicious covetousnesse of those who now have a propriety in it, or have acquired the Copy, or others shall reprint it, we not consenting, we then say, the Booke will come forth, very lame, deficient and contrary to our sober intention of amending its former errors; occasioned then by our being shut up of the Plague.


Corner-house over against Strand-bridge,

Octob. 25. 1655.


Finally, he and Henry Coley published a translation of extracts from Bonatti and Cardano as Anima Astrologiae: or a Guide for Astrologers in 1676, just five years before Lilly’s death. In his address, Lilly writes:


We had formerly some thoughts of revising our Introduction to Astrology, now out of print, and to have enriched it for another edition with the choicest aphorisms, both from the writings of the ancients and our own many years experience, but the laboriousness of that work, considering our age and many infirmities, with the discouragements we have already met with from some ungrateful persons, caused us to lay aside (at least for the present) those intentions.


Again, his dissatisfaction with the 1647 edition is made clear, however, it is also clear that at this date there had been no revised edition. Thus, Christian Astrology 1659 is a bootleg copy of that of 1647 and is, therefore, not an edition but an unauthorized reprint.


Thursday, 11 March 2021

Uranus, Neptune and Pluto: an Investigation into the Sources of their Symbolism - an extract.


© Copyright 2002 Sue Ward. All rights reserved.




The purpose of this paper is to ascertain the methods used to evaluate and classify Uranus, Neptune and Pluto, in astrological terms, and to discover whether those original findings have been modified or changed with experience and later study. It will be demonstrated that the symbolism currently in use remains materially the same as those first tentative steps, and that that symbolism was drawn largely from one ideology.


Tracing symbolic derivation is complex and convoluted: account needs to be taken of the various contributory threads accreted by cultural, philosophic and social considerations. In relation to the seven ‘traditional’ planets,[1] researchers have had to use limited and fragmentary sources because of their antiquity. With the trans-Saturnian planets[2] of Uranus, Neptune and Pluto, however, investigations are facilitated by their recent discoveries and by the large volume of published material that is available.


With this abundance of material focused upon Uranus, Neptune and Pluto, and the high number of astrologers who implement these planets, it suggests that their symbolism is certain and established. The latter is true in that the majority of astrologers accept the symbolism of these planets as substantially definitive. There are also those who employ them in a limited way, and fewer still who do not use them at all. The latter two groups have become larger with the increasing popularity and application of astrological systems predating astrology’s fall from favour during and subsequent to the Age of Enlightenment (1650 – 1800).[3] By the time, of Pluto’s discovery in 1930, there were similar divergences of opinion, although there is little astrological literature from those who did not hold to the use of the new planets.


The Discoveries


William Herschel discovered the planet he named ‘Georgium Sidus’ in 1781, which also became known as ‘Herschel’ or ‘Herschel’s planet’.[4] Following suggestions by Bode and John Couch Adams, the name ‘Uranus’ was accepted only in 1850. In 1846, Urbain Leverrier announced Neptune’s discovery, but joint credit has since been given to Adams. Clyde Tombaugh at the Lowell Observatory discovered Pluto in 1930. For a time, astrologers styled this planet Lowell-Pluto to distinguish it from the hypothetical Pluto (Wemyss-Pluto).[5] Uranus is the only one of these that can be seen with the naked eye.[6]


Naming of the New Discoveries


Uranus and Neptune were named in accordance with the tradition of naming planets according to classical pantheons. Uranus, or Ouranos, the Greek god of the heavens and father of Cronos. Neptune was a lesser god of the Roman pantheon who absorbed the legend of Poseidon, son of Cronos. Pluto, however, was named following a number of suggestions, apparently including “Constance” from Percy Lowell’s wife, and “Vulcan”. The name came from an 11-year-old girl in Oxfordshire (England) and it has been said that Pluto was her favourite Disney character.


The fact that astronomers had named these planets, naturally without any reference to astrological symbolism, did not deter astrologers. Having brushed aside all objections in the cause of synchronicity, they proceeded to draw upon the myths associated with these gods for their symbolism. In the early days following Pluto’s discovery, some resisted its name:


Unfortunately astronomers have given it the unsuitable name of Pluto, a name which had already been given to a different hypothetical planet (ruling Cancer). To avoid confusion it is necessary in astrological circles to refer to the original Pluto as Wemyss-Pluto[7] and to the Lowell planets as Lowell-Pluto.”[8]



Some of the published material relating to these planets is examined and compared to the accounts of their symbolism presently accepted by astrologers. This is done to identify similarities, or otherwise, between the published findings of the earlier astrological authors and those of more recent years. In so doing, the impact made by early observations of the influences of the trans-Saturnians on current thought can be approximated, and any changes made by later observers noted.


While research of the private papers of published astrologers would prove fruitful in discovering the development of their opinions, it was their published works that had impact on the astrological community at large, particularly students. Those students carried forward and transmitted those ideas. It is not assumed that all astrologers agreed with these published accounts, but such accounts would impress upon their readers and thus affect later practice.


The sources used for this paper include works published soon after the discoveries of these planets, the most important  (and the least prolific) being those that followed the discovery of Uranus. As the first incidence of a new member of the solar system, it provides an insight into how that impacted on astrological authors. Since the existing astrological symbolism had been developed over millennia, 18th century astrologers were faced with finding a way of addressing a blank sheet. Methods of ascribing symbolism to Uranus will be compared to those used for Neptune and Pluto. 


The writings of authors of the late 19th and early 20th centuries are explored to find development of early opinions following a century of experience of Uranus. Those authors known to have been influential through to the middle years of the 20th century are highlighted because this period marked a renaissance for astrology. A growing number of students were attracted to it and books of instruction proliferated. As will be shown, the symbolism of Uranus and Neptune was becoming established and the possibility of more planets being discovered was anticipated. This material, then, will demonstrate the method that would be applied later to Pluto.


Modern sources include works recommended for students by some of the major schools of astrology. These were not chosen because the symbolism they promote is universally accepted, but because of the numbers of students who are, or have been, exposed to it through these schools. (Many of these works are addressed specifically to students who have little or no previous knowledge of astrology.) Such students will, necessarily and understandably, present fewer challenges to the accepted body of knowledge precisely because they have no information with which to compare what they are being taught. From this it is deduced that the symbolism promoted in those published works will have had, and will continue to have, a wide influence on astrological practice. 


Certain almanacs and magazines are also referred to because within their pages might be found less formal discussions and airings of views. Their more frequent publishing also provides an interesting monitor of the way opinions were developing, at least, in print.





The full paper can be purchased from



[1] Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Sun, Venus, Mercury, Moon; also styled the Ptolemaic planets, referring to Claudius Ptolemy, c. 2ndcentury AD.

[2] So called because their orbits lie beyond that of Saturn.

[3] These are often referred to, in chronological order, as ‘Hellenistic’, ‘Medieval’ and ‘Traditional’. All form part of the western predictive tradition.

[4] He named it Georgium Sidus after his patron King George III. Some called it the Georgian planet, for example, Worsdale, CP, p.57.

[5] Discussed later.

[6] Even at maximum visibility, Uranus is at the extreme of visibility for the naked eye.

[7] Maurice Wemyss, astrologer and postulator of many trans-Neptunian planets.

[8] Leo, AS.

Sunday, 29 November 2020

Jupiter-Saturn Conjunctions

The forthcoming conjunction in Aquarius next month has reminded me of an article (a long article) I wrote for The Tradition journal in 2009. It was prompted by the crash and banking crises of 2008 and so focused on those and my curiosity to see how far the conjunctions could be tallied with such economic ups and downs. It is no surprise that they correspond closely. Naturally, I commented on the conjunction of 2020 - not as much as some might have liked, but that was not my focus. However, I reproduce the article here because it seems appropriate to the time (it is not for the faint-hearted). As I completed that article, Barack Obama was inaugurated as president of the United States and it was his speech on that occasion that drew my attention and I appended extracts from it to the article. As we approach another presidency, Joe Biden has specified that his will not equate to a 'third Obama term'. And yet when recalling Obama's speech it is difficult to separate the two and the same themes arise now as they did then. Honour and honesty being a prerequisite to solving any of the world's problems, it seems we might now be looking forward to more of those two qualities than we have seen for some time.

I have made no changes to the article other than some formatting adjustments; errors have been left uncorrected.(Apologies for the poor formatting but the article wasn't intended for html.)

Credit-Crunch, Boom-Bust…


… Jupiter-Saturn




The mutual cycles of Jupiter and Saturn are those to be examined if we want to know what will happen in our mundane world. The two slowest moving of the solar system (discounting the new planets of recent times), are those to which astrologers have looked for information of the wider world, a practice known as mundane astrology.  For a very long time, the Jupiter-Saturn cycle has been forgotten, overlooked or ignored, and only recently have astrologers of our age begun to investigate its potential efficacy. 


The cycle begins with the conjunction which varies in the first place according to the element, or triplicity, in which it occurs. It sounds simple, but the cycles within cycles layer themselves as a Russian doll does: one inside the other, which is inside yet another, and so on. This still does not sound terribly complicated, but once we consider that this layering of cycles eventually takes the astrologer back to the beginning of the world, and in technical terms, very quickly, the complexity and scope of the system becomes apparent.  If one wants to examine the current cycle, one must examine the series to which it belongs. Once that has been examined, the greater series to which that belongs must be examined and so on.


In a little under 200 years, Jupiter and Saturn form a conjunction in a new triplicity. These follow the usual order of Fire, Earth, Air and Water. Within that 200-year cycle, these two planets will form nine further, lesser conjunctions. Not all of the latter will necessarily be in the same triplicity as the originating, but most will. The conjunction named ‘Greatest’ is generally agreed to be that one which occurs first in Aries of the Fire series, although some authors refer to the Greatest Conjunction when the first occurs in Fire no matter in which sign. 


In order to gain insight into the local detail of the wider conjunction, comets, eclipses, solar ingresses and national charts can be examined. These will not be dealt with here, but it is a relatively small step once the picture has been sketched from the conjunction itself. This work is greatly enhanced by accurate software with which long lists of dates can be generated. A superficial scan of these lists and a reasonably good historical chronology immediately reveals interesting links between these conjunctions and the rises and falls of various civilisations among many other things. But this is just by way of an example, much more can be adduced by a closer examination. Because of the complexity of delineation, the charts here will all be erected for London.


Before continuing with the practical part, a few words about sources. There is but one which deals with the subject comprehensively, and that is England’s Propheticall Merline of 1644 by William Lilly. It is the one to which this paper refers in most matters, others being drawn from a reading of Lilly’s other works where they provide additional detail. He himself complains of a lack of sources which offer the kind of detail he requires in judging the conjunction of 1643. This small book is now widely available in various formats and so it is unnecessary to describe it beyond pointing out that Lilly has used a number of much older sources. It should also be noted that when writing that booklet, England was on the verge of civil war with all its attendant fear and instability; for Lilly, therefore, it was not merely an academic exercise. Nevertheless, little is known about these conjunctions, even taking Lilly’s work into account.


This article focuses on the current economic situation, but other appropriate subjects for examination might be health (plagues, epidemics, etc.) or technological progress, social or political situations and so on. One fruitful source of enquiry is the serious problem in recent times of animal diseases (B.S.E., Foot and Mouth, Bird Flu, etc.). All of these and more fall under the remit of the Jupiter-Saturn conjunction. Needless to say, in this paper certain dates and periods are highlighted from the economic viewpoint which will, unavoidably and to some extent, remove them from their historical context. It is essential to note that each small conjunction belongs to a greater cycle and that that one itself belongs to a still greater conjunction. Each one introduces or develops a change which must always be seen within its context. So, the Jupiter-Saturn series are indicators of evolution and development and they will point out the direction in which humanity will proceed. They mark and delineate the ‘ages’ to which history often refers.


The change from the Fire into the Earth triplicity took place in 1802 and the influences of that change continued until 1980 when the Greater Conjunction occurred in the Air triplicity. This in fact was a triple conjunction of 31st December 1980, 4th March and 24 July 1981. It seems reasonable to suggest that the force or power of this conjunction was three times as strong as a single. We might also infer a ‘stop-start’ action and, when added to the fact that the conjunction has moved back into Earth, we might wonder when we will truly feel the effects of the Air series. As said, in 2000, the conjunction moved back into Earth and it is this one with which we are struggling now.


The fundamental interpretation of a Jupiter-Saturn conjunction is one of change. A delineation will reveal what will transpire until the next conjunction, whilst also monitoring the subsequent aspects of these two. We can make certain generalisations about these conjunctions and their following aspects, but the first conjunction of that triplicity is superior to the nine lesser that follow and thus has greater import for the long term. Many of those changes can be felt some years before the conjunction itself because such changes are always linked to what has gone before.


Correspondences of Jupiter and Saturn


First we need to secure our vocabulary in the context of mundane work and the following list follows no particular order.

































































Stable and enduring prosperity



This list of correspondences relies largely on the more negative sides of the characters of these planets, because the beneficence of Jupiter is afflicted by malefic Saturn and is turned to its negative side, or is unable to express its beneficence. A great deal depends on their level of dignity and thus which one overcomes the other: whilst Saturn might afflict Jupiter, Jupiter can uplift Saturn. Indeed, both might be well dignified and operate to the best of their capacities and it might be said that when they are in such a condition and in aspect with one another that they promise balance. However, in general terms, it would be wise to consider that balance lies somewhere between the two and seldom occurs. Yet, as with any other astrological application, it is balance which we seek and can only be achieved through moderation. Perhaps an impossible aim where profit is the only motive.




 The change of element is a gradual process, as mentioned above it fits within the context of the preceding changes. What becomes clear is that the age of monarchy and absolute rule is over as Fire – that kingly element – recedes, and the rise of the merchant classes comes to the fore. As Fire ends, Earth begins and so does the principal of the organisation of society. 

Organisation and regulation are the key words for this Earth period – the bureaucrat rules.

As the 18th century closed income tax had been introduced temporarily at first into England, Wales and Scotland. It is accepted that for this to occur an organised society must be in place. In 1801, the Irish Parliament was dissolved and Ireland became part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and was ruled from London. This is an indication of a move towards centralised government, a necessity of organisation. In the same year the first UK Census was performed. The Industrial Revolution was underway and the British Empire was expanding. All of the foregoing required vast resources invested into administration of all kinds with the emphasis on centralisation. The key to any ‘empire’ is control and for that to be achieved, organisation is required.  This is true in any age of course, but the British empire was founded on trade and its aim was trade and when that was not sufficient, the acquisition of land became the goal. In the beginning, there was no intention of glory or rule – a fiery activity – only to keep up with the other trading nations of Europe. However, the recent experience of the Fire element kept war and conquest as valid methods of achieving national aims.

In 1801 the Enclosure Act was passed which, as with previous Acts of this nature, was to enlarge private estates through the enclosure and registration of waste land, marsh land, but also common land. This process had been in place for centuries, but there was a surge of petitions after 1750 and the Act of 1801 was merely to rationalise and organise the preceding Acts. The Act of 1845 removed the need for enclosure petitions to be brought before Parliament, needing only the approval of permanent Commissioners. Just the word “enclosure” has a Saturnian resonance, as the word “enlarging” has one of a Jupiterean nature.  We might also consider the ‘Highland Clearances’ which began in 1814. This enforced relocation of tenant farmers is so clearly the symbolical product of the conjunction and undertaken by the landlords to make way for  sheep, considered to be more profitable, but also to ‘improve’ the lives of the farmers by making them more industrious. Presumably this would enforce their engagement with that profit-making machine of the Industrial Revolution – presently we might call it ‘value added’, although many emigrated to Australia and New Zealand. But this was miniscule compared to the land grabbing that was occurring elsewhere in the world. The Napoleonic Wars of 1799-1815 secured the seas for Britain and ensured the security of its many trading posts and settlements. At its height, the British Empire controlled about a quarter of the world’s land area and a quarter of its population; it is said to have been the largest formal empire ever known.

“The 19th century marked the full flower of the British Empire. Administration and policy changed during the century from the haphazard arrangements of the 17th and 18th centuries to the sophisticated system characteristic of Joseph Chamberlain's tenure (1895–1900) in the Colonial Office. That office, which began in 1801, was first an appendage of the Home Office and the Board of Trade, but by the 1850s it had become a separate department with a growing staff and a continuing policy; it was the means by which discipline and pressure were exerted on the colonial governments when such action was considered necessary.” (Encyclopedia Britannica)

This quotation in its entirety speaks of the Earth conjunction – a bureaucracy that was second to none. Whilst having the military means were they to be necessary, organisation was the key to consolidation and further expansion. We should not be persuaded that this was the only tool used to facilitate British aims; a recently coined phrase is also useful here – ‘chequebook diplomacy’. Such an earthy concept with the nature of this conjunction being very clear from its earliest stages. These examples are to demonstrate that organisational zeal had entered into every facet of life. The purpose of that was to secure profits and, although the slave trade was to be abolished, our modern period has replaced ‘personnel’ departments with those responsible for ‘human resources’, a clear parallel and just as repugnant. Human life had or has become just another means to a profit expanded beyond the dreams of the most successful trader in slaves.

We should not forget that Saturn’s was not the only correspondence that we can see in action during this period. There were major social and political reforms too, including the abolition of the slave trade in 1807 (completed in 1833 with the Abolition of Slavery Act) and the Factory Act of 1802 which regulated working conditions particularly for child workers. In the 20th century, the emancipation of women, the National Health Service and the Welfare State, plus many more such reforms. In fact the ‘grass roots’ movement to abolish slavery is seen as the first and most successful public campaign in history and has been likened to the movement which generated the wave of protest against apartheid in South Africa more recently.  All of which emphasise the part that Jupiter had to play as well, however in almost every case, utility had to be presented as a supporting argument. For example, that the national Health Service would support the economy by keeping workers healthy and more productive. This period holds so many changes, for good and ill, that it would be worthy of far more detailed research. Notable has been the rise of so-called ‘terrorism’ in our age, certainly we are not the first to experience such violent actions, but we have seen a great increase in organised structures within these movements. Indeed, Al Qaeda has been described as an organisational and administrative centre for numerous smaller groups. We might also consider the term ‘organised crime’ as a feature of our age, its influence reaching into every area of society. 

Before dealing with this chart, it should first be noted that it bears remarkable similarities to that of the chart for the coronation of William I in 1066, which preceded the conjunction in Virgo of 1067, perhaps indicating a change for Britain from conquered as it was, to the conqueror it became. We might also remember that William himself was, for his time, a great organiser, too, the instigator of the Domesday Book, the great land survey of 1086. This survey is the oldest legal document and remains a legal document to this day – an icon of bureaucracy and control. William needed to know who owned what in order to impose taxation among other things – such an Earthy pursuit.

Another earthy activity is that of building, and the Normans were great builders in stone. Hundreds of religious and fortified buildings were constructed during that period, for example, the cathedrals at Durham, Winchester and Peterborough. This has interesting parallels with the failing property market of the present which has followed a boom in the building industry.

In this way, the organising zeal of successive governments has proceeded almost unhindered. The UK has the greatest number of CCTV cameras (Closed Circuit Television cameras), making us the most scrutinised nation and, potentially, the most controlled. We hear accusations of widespread government interference and regulation in the smallest and most personal areas of our lives, earning it the title of ‘nanny state’. The UK has the highest prison population of any E.U. country, it has the largest statute books (Acts of Parliament), and yet crime levels continue to rise. Health and education have become matters for profit and loss where individual groups are stigmatised for indulging in activities which might cost the National Health Service too much money. Injuries sustained while participating in sporting pastimes, for example, illness allegedly caused by smoking and drinking alcohol, or being overweight (according to Government guidelines, naturally).  And the list of prohibitions and regulations lengthens.

The Conjunction – Mean or Middling

As the first conjunction in the Earth series it is also called Mean, the two other classifications being Maxima (Greatest) which occurs when the first of the triplicity series occurs in Aries, and Magna (Great) when the first occurs in any Fire sign.

So, the conjunction of 1802 was a Mean Conjunction because it occurred in Earth. The fact that it is the first of the series means that it has the greatest power and action. The last conjunction of the series indicates the conclusion of what was begun with the first. We may take this to mean that the urge to organise, regulate and centralise ended with the conjunction in Air of 1980, we should also find that profit as the sole driving force ends, although this is difficult to see while we stagger through the current lesser conjunction in Earth. 

The change will not be clearly defined by that single date, as ever the prerequisite change of attitude occurs first and precedes the actual conjunction itself. This is partly the reason that the preceding comet was examined by astrologers of old. As with all comets they offered the Word of God which stood outside of zodiacal cycles and manifestations, thus it gave intimation of the nature of the conjunction to come. If the sign in which the comet first appeared, or any through which it transited, had affinity with the sign of the conjunction, the latter would assist “God’s decree” as described by the comet, but less violently. The great comet of 1769[i], although not known to have been observed and noted by astrologers, appears to have first appeared to the naked eye in Gemini and was lost to sight in Sagittarius or Capricorn. Its transit of Virgo provides an obvious affinity, but without protracted research, more information is impossible. 

Of the mutation to Earth, Lilly quotes Albumazar (or Abu Mashar 787-886), who wrote The Book of Conjunctionsamong others, that the “estate of the common or mean man will be equal to that of princes”. With the rise of the merchant or middle classes, this seems to have been upheld, further the standard of living and earning capacity of the working classes improved and increased and continues to do so. So, we have yet another illustration of the material nature of this conjunction. 

As this paper focuses upon economic matters let us consider the chart for the founding of the Stock Exchange in London. The date is that quoted by the London Stock Exchange itself, but unfortunately, the time cannot be ascertained. The chart is set for midday.

It is tempting to adjust this chart so that Jupiter is near the Ascendant and Mercury near the Midheaven. Jupiter’s exaltation describes the huge success of this very old institution, but that same placement provides no substance, no real meaning, Jupiter’s nature is inflated and full of self-importance, arrogance, but it is also wealth. Mercury is the natural significator of trade and is, of course, the essence of  the Exchange’s business, and even its name especially as Mercury is also said to rule London. Having such durability, the Exchange should also be delineated by a planet in a fixed sign and here we have the slowest planet, Saturn, in Leo. The generally undignified condition of the planets in this chart, however they might be placed with the correct time, provides a clear picture of the nature of this institution and its members: undignified, dishonourable. It comes as no surprise, therefore, that modern investors and administrators have stooped to lower and lower levels in order to enhance their financial standing, evidenced by the various financial scandals of recent times.

Trading had been taking place before this date, of course, but this date is considered  by the Stock Exchange itself to be that of its founding. It was at this point that the principles of organisation and regulation (in this case, self-regulation) were applied to the trading of stocks and shares. It would be reasonable to describe the Stock Exchange as the bastion of capitalism, a place where ‘market forces’ decide the ebb and flow of commerce and profit is the only goal. For investors in a deep mining company, for example, an explosion in one of the tunnels is of concern because of the fall in the price of the shares, not because of the deaths or injuries of miners.

Given the nature of this Earth period, one would be forgiven for thinking that government (the result and instigator of organisation and regulation) would be the key here, but that is not the case. What we find is that capitalism is its own master, it will not and cannot be governed and, according to the normal course of events, cannot be predicted. So, amidst the high and thick walls of control, we find chaos. Financial commentators and analysts discuss psychological concepts such as ‘herd psychology’ in an attempt to discover what drives the highs and lows of the markets. To no avail, at least no-one has yet managed to stem the flood one way or the other. Having profit as the only motive, precludes much soul searching – unless profits are in danger. 

So, since the markets can be pushed hither and thither almost at a whim – a change in the weather can cause huge shifts in trading – how can we hope to predict the highs and lows? The cycles of Jupiter and Saturn offer us the key, or one of the keys, to locating the peaks and troughs. We should remember that these cycles affect every area of life and by choosing to concentrate on just one, it is possible to miss others. These others are just as capable of affecting the economy: war, terrorism, crop failures, mine collapses, epidemics and so on. Everything is linked to everything else.

A Timetable of Crises

The following table presents some of the major economic disasters and illustrates the connection with the Jupiter-Saturn cycle. It cannot show all the events which led up to individual crashes or recessions, neither can it explain the reason that one series or aspect affected the economy so badly while others of similar nature did not. A much closer investigation of all astrological events is necessary to deduce any kind of detailed pattern. It is also necessary to take note of the occasions when Mars is in aspect with either Jupiter or Saturn within each series, because it is known to ‘trigger’ certain responses. Another point to be considered for each conjunction is which of the two planets is the stronger and more elevated. The table, however, will demonstrate how easy it is to connect the Jupiter-Saturn series of conjunctions and subsequent aspects with disasters and upheavals of all kinds. Their joint moieties are about 11° and so their associated effects will begin and end taking the joint moieties into account, but only the exact aspect is listed below.

The ‘crashes’, ‘panics’ and ‘depressions’ all relate to the financial markets, this is made clear by the period of 1722 to 1825 during which the sale of shares was outlawed in the UK. This does not imply that there were no financial problems during that time, but the sudden highs and lows in prosperity appear to be absent. This prohibition lasts for all but the first (Greatest) of the Fire series from 1702, right through the first of the Earth series from 1802. When trading began again the first lesser conjunction of the Earth series had occurred in 1821, but had moved back into Fire, returning to the Earth triplicity in 1842.

The debacle of the South Sea Company and its attendant ‘bubble’ , defined as an unrealistic enterprise, is well known, but it offers an insight into the complexities of following the Jupiter-Saturn series. This “unrealistic” situation saw very great increases in the price of the company’s shares. From 1711, when the company was founded, to the end of this first conjunction cycle were a number of events leading to the bursting of this bubble in 1720. Most of the more notable dates connect with the full series of aspects during that period.

The entries in red are the ten biggest one-day stock market falls in America; the entries in blue are the ten worst ‘bear’ markets, that is, those of long duration. All are ranked according to the number preceding them.





Exact Date

Early Aug 1720 – 1722 in UK






1719 –1720

South Sea Bubble







Mania began 1711. 

1718 Problems with Spain. 

1719 Conversion proposal

April 1720 Conversion accepted. SSC share prices rise dramatically to end of May 1720. Sale of shares outlawed until 1825.

Mississippi bubble burst.

Full series from trine  of 1710 to sextile of 1719


April 1825 – early 1826 UK


Began in Bank of England. Boom following Nap. Wars.









square Rx



June 1866 – for “several years” UK

Banks collapse

Overend, Guerney & Co. July 1865 

Limited Co. June 1866 liquidation 

Bank rate at 10% for 3 months. 200 companies bust


square Rx



24 Sept 1869

Black Friday






Initiated Long Depression to 1896. Franco-Prussian war of 1870 blamed


Not exact until 17.9.1874

19 Jan 1882


Paris Bourse

conj Earth


14 May 1884





21 Dec 1896





(6) 1901-1903





17 June 1901- 11 Sep 1903 US


McKinley assassination, severe drought

conj Earth


(3) 1906-1907





19 Jan 1906-15 Nov 1907 US


New York credit crunch, Roosevelt’s antitrust drive.



trine Rx


trine Rx






(9) 1916-1917





21 Nov 1916-19 Dec 1917


America joining WW1



square Rx








(5) 1919-1921





3 Nov 1919-24 Aug 1921 US


Boom and bust re. car industry, radio, aviation. Roaring 20s followed. 

conj Earth


(4) 1929





(2) 28 Oct 1929




oppo Rx



(3) 29 Oct 1929





(4) 6 Nov 1929





3 Sep 1929-13 Nov 1929 US


End of Roaring 20s, start of Great Depression. Was 25 years before value recovered pre-crash levels. Lowest  level July 1932.

trine Rx



(1) 1930-1932





(5) 12 Aug 1932



oppo Rx




17 Apr 1930-8 July 1932


Worst of all. Combined with 1929 created Great Depression. 

oppo Rx


oppo Rx




(7) 21 July 1933





10 Mar 1937-31 Mar 1938  US


Legacy of Great Depression, war scare and Wall Street scandals


conj Rx Earth



(2) 1937-1938





(8 joint) 1939-1942





12 Sep 1939-28 Apr 1942 US


WW2, Pearl Harbour

conj Rx Earth

conj Rx Earth

conj Earth




(joint 8) 1968-1970





(joint 7) 1973-1974





11 Jan 1973-6 Dec 1974 US


Vietnam (1963 first US troops entered). 




trine Rx




(joint 7) 1987





(1) 19 Oct 1987





(6) 26 Oct 1987





14 Oct 1987

Black Monday

Boom & bust, no known reason. Dow had recovered in 2 years. Government  intervention to slow panic selling.

trine Rx




13 Oct 1989


Re. buyout of United Airlines



16 Sep 1992

Black Wednesday

UK forced to withdraw from ERM, recession followed.

oppo Rx


(10) 27 Oct 1997



sextile Rx


(8) 31 Aug 1998





(10) 2000-2002





March 2000


Dot com bubble burst.

conj Earth


December 2001


Enron collapse.



(9) 14 Apr 2000



conj Earth


15 Jan 2000- 9 Oct 2002 US


1992-2000 record expansion. Tech bubble. 


Government intervention.

conj Earth


16 Sep 2008-


Failure of financial institutions. Borrowing. Media ‘talk-up’. 





These form just some of the major events in the economies of western Europe and America. Many of them are the result of a chain of events beginning long before the event itself and so the dates of the aspects can, in some cases, seem to be wide of the mark, in fact, but choosing a corresponding aspect without first examining the astrological detail is difficult. 

1980 to 2000 –

Listing some of Lilly’s descriptions of the first conjunction occurring in Air:

“The learned flourish as does science and philosophy…Art and artists are encouraged, knowledge increases and craftsmen are appreciated.”

When the first occurs in Libra:

“Divines have great learning and profundity and their works remain famous in succeeding ages….Divinity is now handled like Divinity, although sometimes it is taken to extremes….Magic is earnestly sought….Great actions are effected in the world.”

We haven’t had a great deal of experience with the Air triplicity yet, but we do know that the so-called ‘religious right wing’ have been voluble. Religious debates in public have become frequent, perhaps this might be seen in some ways as a reaction against the growing interest in the occult – “magic”. However, it is difficult to see how these events have occurred on a greater scale, perhaps this is a result of the triple conjunction and that ‘stop-start’ action.

We should expect ‘spin’ from Air, lots of catchphrases and sound bites, and those we certainly got. The table above clearly shows, even if in abbreviated form, how busy this period was. Ideologies are Airy by nature and we saw the Thatcher government encourage ordinary people to buy their homes; when it sold the nationalised industries it encouraged those same people to become shareholders; with growing unemployment they were urged to re-train and become self-employed. Anyone who was prepared to work hard and participate fully in Thatcher’s utopia would benefit.  They should invest for their children’s education and their own retirements. Once again the property market fell dramatically leaving many home owners with negative equity, the interest rate rose rapidly to 15% causing thousands of bankruptcies and unemployment soared again. There was never any sense that the government could do anything to control the situation, indeed, it was the government which caused the problem according to most commentators.

Saturn in this chart is much stronger than Jupiter, it is exalted in Libra after all, and is the strongest planet in the chart. But the conjunction occurs in the 2nd house so we can expect the weight of these changes to occur in the economy. Saturn being so well-conditioned, we might have expected less upheaval, but the dispositor, Venus, is in poor condition being peregrine, although it has some accidental advantages. These do not point towards any lasting benefit or substance and we might comment that luck favoured the daring.

For the future, we should see Lilly’s predictions come to fruition, but evidence of these will be in evidence nearer to the end of this current Earth conjunction.

A change of element causes many shocking changes and this Air period was no different. That there were three conjunctions implies a trebling of the effects. In fact, the phrase “blowing bubbles” could not be any more apt than it was then. And it concluded with the ‘dot com’ bubble of 2000 of that virtual and airy world of the internet. 

The years between 1992 and 2000 are remarkable as years of record expansion, keeping in mind that this Greater Conjunction began in Air it might be useful to see what happened in astrological terms after the series of five oppositions which concluded in 1991.


12 October 1993        Jupiter and Saturn (retrograde) in trine in Libra and Aquarius respectively. Just from this it is clear that Saturn is dominant with rulership of Aquarius and exaltation in Libra. Air corresponds to transmission of all kinds and, being Hot and Moist, is fertile and productive.

28 April 1994                Jupiter and Saturn in trine in Scorpio and Pisces respectively. This gives Jupiter some power over Saturn as it rules Pisces. The Water element is prolific and gives unrestricted fertility.

29 August 1994                With Saturn retrograde the previous aspect is repeated.

26 January 1995              Application to the square, but this did not perfect.

11 November 1995        The square perfects with Saturn retrograde, Jupiter is in Sagittarius                    and Saturn is in Pisces. Jupiter prevails and expansion continues. From this point to the bubble bursting in 2001 there was a great rise in the numbers of so-called ‘dot coms’.

9 February 1997         The sextile occurs with Jupiter in Aquarius and Saturn in Aries, its position of fall. Although the expansion is said to have continued for another three years, it would be reasonable to assume that the problems began at this point with a type of ‘mania’.

14 July 1997                    The sextile repeats.

15 November 1997         The sextile repeats and the wave of unrealistic speculation continues. The catchphrase of the time was “Get Big Fast”.

28 May 2000                   The conjunction in Taurus brought speculators ‘down to earth’ with the crash occurring in the following year, but the warning signs were already in place.

In general, the Earth triplicity promises the following:

  • The displacing of dishonest people in great authority (particularly those acting on behalf of the government or monarch);
  • Great inundations;
  • Earthquakes;
  • Many comets;
  • Idolatry and superstition in religion involving large groups of people;
  • Famine and food shortages for people and animals;
  • Because the Moon and Venus rule this triplicity, pleasure, leisure and eating are highlighted.

It is easy to find corresponding events even in the UK where earthquakes are a rarity and, although we have not suffered any famine, we have lost vast numbers of cattle, sheep, etc. to disease.

There is no angularity in this chart and so there seems to be nothing outstanding, and yet the Sun and Venus conjoin the 2nd cusp of the 1066 chart. Venus rules the Ascendant and signifies the British people, being combust we are enthralled and blind. Mercury disposits them and is the lord of the figure and so again we find ourselves focusing on trade, but since the Sun and Venus are in the 8th house we could take this as highlighting borrowing as a feature of this conjunction. Jupiter is the more elevated of the two, but is weaker than Saturn, so choosing between one or the other is not easy.  In Taurus, both intimate slow, steady growth and hard work, but the Moon is in impatient Aries applying to the conjunction suggesting that the nature of the conjunction will be ignored. Our money is Mars in Gemini which is another configuration of haste, carelessness and impatience. Furthermore, it has no substance in Air and this would seem to indicate high levels of personal and corporate borrowing – a demonstration of an unwillingness to wait.

The preceding comet and the subsequent eclipse should be examined for further detail and timing.

2008 – a year of superlatives

The latest round of scandals and disasters seem to encapsulate every similar event of the last 300 years – plus ├ža change – panic, mania, crashes, bubbles, recessions; it seems that anything that could happen to the financial markets has happened in the last two cycles. As we approach the very centre of this conjunction in Earth, a brief examination of some of the detail might be helpful. The next table has been produced using astrological software.[ii]






  Jup   conj Sat             

28 May 2000

22 Taurus 43

22 Taurus 43

  Jup   sext Sat  Rx           

  1 Nov 2003

13 Virgo 10

13 Cancer 10

  Jup   sext Sat             

  1 May 2004

08 Virgo 58

08 Cancer 58

  Jup   sext Sat            

17 Aug 2004

21 Virgo 48

21 Cancer 48

  Jup   sq   Sat  Rx           

17 Dec 2005

10 Scorpio 44

10 Leo 44

  Jup   sq   Sat             

22 Jun  2006

09 Scorpio 16

09 Leo 16

  Jup   sq   Sat             

25 Oct  2006

23 Scorpio 30

23 Leo 30





  Jup   tri  Sat  Rx           

16 Mar 2007

19 Sagitt 08

19 Leo 08

  Jup   tri   Sat             

  6 May 2007

18 Sagitt 24

18 Leo 24

  Jup   tri  Sat  Rx           

21 Jan 2008

07 Capric 35

07 Virgo 35

  Jup   tri   Sat             

  8 Sep 2008

12 Capric 34

12 Virgo 34

  Jup    tri  Sat             

21 Nov 2008

20 Capric 18

20 Virgo 18





  Jup   opp   Sat             

23 May 2010

27 Pisces 53

27 Virgo 53

  Jup   opp   Sat             

16 Aug 2010

02 Aries 25

02 Libra 25

  Jup  opp  Sat  Rx           

28 Mar 2011

14 Aries 21

14 Libra 21





  Jup   tri   Sat             

17 Jul 2013

04 Cancer 54

04 Scorpio 54

  Jup   tri   Sat             

13 Dec 2013

18 Cancer 27

18 Scorpio 27

  Jup   tri   Sat  Rx           

24 May 2014

18 Cancer 59

18 Scorpio 59

  Jup   sq   Sat             

  3 Aug 2015

28 Leo 18

28 Scorpio 18

  Jup   sq   Sat  Rx           

23 Mar 2016

16 Virgo 23

16 Sagitt 23

  Jup   sq   Sat  Rx           

26 May 2016

13 Virgo 42

13 Sagitt 42

  Jup   sext   Sat             

29 Nov 2016 

(not exact)                       


  Jup  sext  Sat  Rx           

 27 Aug 2017                       

 21 Libra 11             

21 Sagitt 11

The series of five trines, marked in red, are those in which we are interested for the latest financial crisis. Again we are looking at a chain of events which begins with, as described above, insubstantial money, in other words credit – trust. As described in the vocabulary of Jupiter and Saturn, the term ‘credit crunch’ is absolutely their respective roles.  The phrase is defined as a severe shortage of money or credit.

The beginning of this credit crunch is marked at 9th August 2007 by the problems with the French bank BNP Paribas. This initiated a sharp rise in the cost of credit and alerted the financial markets to the size of the problem. This, too, had a history: the sub-prime market. This problem began in America with the rise in interest rates between 2004 and 2006 as debt grew in the housing market, it was sold on to banks elsewhere in the world. It is for this reason that it is called a ‘contagion’, a plague of medieval proportions but of a different kind.

Following the French bank’s announcement of a “complete evaporation of liquidity” (recalling the earlier comment about the nature of Air), national banks began to intervene. The slide continued through the following months right up to date, never a month passing without more bad news. It is hardly necessary to detail every one of them, or even some of them. By October 2008, plans were being made and rescue packages put into place by various governments, but the losses have been huge. All records have been broken, it is officially the worst of the worst of financial crises.

The graph below, issued by H.M. (Her Majesty’s) Treasury, shows the pattern of rises and falls in the UK’s Gross Domestic Product, the falls are those used to decide if a recession is in place or not. A comparison with the tables above will provide information to connect with the various aspects of Jupiter and Saturn.

The following chart is offered as an example of how the intermediate aspects can be used to accrue detailed predictions. [iii]

The 1st house is ruled by Saturn in Virgo which is intercepted in the 7th house; it is the strongest planet in the chart. This gives some resilience and fortitude and the North Node in the 1st also offers some benefit, but this is Saturn’s chart and the correspondences of what follows will conform to its nature. The Moon’s application to Saturn and the latter’s deflationary nature both suggest a further drop in stock market values and this was to be most noticeable on the 21st November when the conjunction perfected. Notably, Mars is conjunct the MC in Sagittarius, ruled by Jupiter. So the two most important angles are ruled by the two planets which are significant of the crisis. The trouble signified by Mars will be public, although having little power and so little duration because of its duality, but still causing damage. Mars is rarely quiet in its actions and in Sagittarius will spread the news far and wide. As Jupiter is in the 12th, another scandal is suggested which will affect the economy because Mars rules the 2nd house. 

Saturn in Virgo is bureaucratic and petty, interventionist and interfering and it brings those characteristics to its naturally deflationary and restrictive essence. A trine with a well-placed and dignified Jupiter might have softened this somewhat, but Jupiter is disposited by Saturn and is in fall. Jupiter is the natural significator of wealth and Saturn of poverty – in this case Saturn overcomes. With the Moon closely applying to conjunct Saturn, there will be public pressure on the Government to act, hence yet more restrictions, interference and red tape.

At the close of business on 21st November shares were at their lowest level for five years and concerns about a recession continued. They have rallied somewhat since then, but the pound’s fall has continued. Oil prices, too, have recovered a little.

The scandal did become apparent on 12th December 2008 when Bernard Madoff was arrested in New York for an alleged and estimated 50 billion dollar investment fraud. While investors complain, it should be noted that they trusted (Jupiter) Madoff and his company to produce profits (Jupiter) for them. He inflated (Jupiter) the truth (Jupiter) and lied (Saturn) which turned to fraud (Saturn) producing vast losses (Saturn).

This trine separated around the 15th January 2009, after which there some respite is to be expected until the next round of aspects, a series of three oppositions, beginning with the first perfection on 23rd May 2010. Let us hope that this time the lessons have been learned so that we do not have to face yet further problems, but it does suggest that the current recession will have ended by then. These oppositions mark the turning point of this conjunction in Earth, it is when attitudes and opinions will turn towards the forthcoming Lesser Conjunction of the Air series.  The next twelve years will be best used in taking stock and in stocking up, not in speculation, towards less extravagance based upon nothing more than a promise of prosperity.

This is the first in the series of three oppositions which will provide indications of what will follow from the next two. Saturn is retrograde, peregrine, and debilitated in a number of other ways, so it cannot be constructive, but promises destruction. However, Jupiter is strong, as is Venus placed in the 1st house. Just these two suggest a relaxing of the recession and a return to better times, however, Jupiter’s very fertile position in Pisces and the 10th should be treated with caution. Saturn may be less dignified, but that does not mean that it has no power and its power here is not for productivity. Both are intercepted which suggests an ‘enclosed’ or hidden matter and this is supported by Venus’s strength in the 1st being ruler of the 12th. The Moon separates from Jupiter and Saturn and applies to a trine of the Sun which brings all hidden matters into public view, or at least into the open. With the South Node on the 2nd cusp, a scandal is revealed pertaining to financial or economic matters. Mars in the 4th is notable because it is angular and this promises a small benefit to the property market. This will not meet expectations because although it is in Leo a fiery and ebullient sign, it has no great dignity.

In the chart for the second opposition of the series, Jupiter is retrograde and the 1st and 7th houses repeat the signs of this opposition which implies a strengthening of the promised events. Saturn is the more dignified of the two this time and is in its exaltation, so we must expect less expansion. However, there is a negative element to this because the Moon is in its fall and represents the populace. This placing is one of suspicion and complaint, and in the 7th house suggests a change regarding international partnerships, but one which is not met with popular approval. Mars in the 7th by the five degree rule, and in detriment signifies a war of words with opponents. Venus in its own sign applies to Mars and so this antagonism will not endure. Jupiter rules the 8th and 9th houses which suggests borrowing and legislation. Mercury, of trade, and in its own sign signifies an improvement, but because it is void of course and cadent, the improvement will be likewise and thus lead nowhere for the time being.

The last of the oppositions has Saturn still the more dignified of the two, with Venus the lady of the figure. As the Sun applies to combure Jupiter and oppose Saturn restrictions and losses prevail.  Nevertheless, the mood is more optimistic and although there may be no gains to be excited about, there are fewer losses. The financial upheavals will settle and because Venus is exalted on the 4
th cusp, the property market will rise. Parallels have been drawn between the property market and the stock market: the rises and falls of property values preceding those of shares. We might take this as an indication that progress is being made, but exaltation is a position of inflation, that unreal ‘puffing up’, so we should still be wary.

Fossil Fuels

The 1802 conjunction in Earth also highlights the huge investment in and reliance upon fossil fuels which themselves are of Earth, their extraction from the ground is an earthy occupation and process. This description maintains even when these fuels are converted to provide other types of fuel, such as electricity or heat because these fiery elements are contained within earthy ones. Modern economies are based upon fossil fuels, particularly oil, and we have seen the increasing power and influence of the oil producing countries. We have also seen how countries who do not produce oil can be manipulated by those that do, and this has led to many wars to which we have been witness. 

The use of petroleum oil is ancient, but its modern history begins in 1846 with the discovery of refining kerosene from coal. By 1852 this process was improved by refining kerosene from the more readily available oil. From this point the use of oil spread rapidly worldwide and it became another currency. The Industrial Revolution, however, was based on coal with deep-shaft mining begun in the UK in the late 18th century. The rapid expansion through the 19th century followed the use of wooden pit props employed from about 1800 and enabling deeper shafts to be dug.  This output peaked in the early part of the 20th century and has fallen ever since and currently is almost non-existent in the UK.

As the resources from beneath the ground have been used – some would say plundered – we have moved ever closer to exhausting those supplies. In so doing we have caused enormous environmental damage, the latest warnings being those associated with ‘global warming’. It is clear that new sources of energy should be our most urgent aim.  Long term problems are predicted in the means of power generation, too. A recent report by a Parliamentary committee warned of power blackouts in the future because “Plants supplying about a third of the UK’s energy needs will close by 2020.” And, “Priority should be given to increasing the UK’s gas storage capacity, the report added, to reduce the exposure to price volatility.”[iv]

Besieged by the problems of supplying enough energy to satisfy our voracious appetites, a new source of energy is essential. If “necessity is the mother of invention” it should not be beyond us to fulfil this need. Fossil fuel dependent industries, such as car manufacturing, will conform and adapt as they always have. The reason for emphasising the fossil fuels of this Earth age is that we have entered the Air age and clearly the previously mentioned problems will be addressed in one way or another. The use of fossil fuels will recede.

2020 – The Age of Aquarius


The myriad changes that we have experienced just in the last 100 years mean that the astrologer attempting to judge such a configuration as this must have great imagination. Could the astrologers of the past have predicted the fax machine or the internet, mobile telephones or microwave ovens much less the lifestyle that went along with them? It would seem reasonable to say that they could not anymore than we are able to predict things for which there are no words. Thus they spoke briefly and in broad terms, and that is where this examination must begin.

Lilly states that the conjunction must be judged not just by the sign of that conjunction, but also by the sign which rises, as here then by Aquarius and Leo. Furthermore, that the effects of a change from one triplicity to another will last for fifty years and that the conjunction is necessarily “more forceful and inevitable” than any of their other aspects. As previously mentioned, the mutation to Air indicates that the learned flourish as do knowledge and education, skills and talents are encouraged. In Aquarius, the joy of Saturn, Lilly notes that honesty, integrity and spirituality move to the forefront of life. We might take this to imply that the mentality which places materialism above the sacred is overcome. If such a change in attitude could be achieved, it would indeed be remarkable.

Aquarius is masculine, diurnal and hot and moist, sanguine, fixed and in Christian Astrology Lilly notes it as “rational and human” and “courteous”. We might also expect to find stability and durability, but not stagnation because of the fecundity of Air, from the construction of Saturn and the activity of the diurnal, we will see progress and productivity, but not of the type we are used to seeing with eyes downcast. Saturn of the conjunction is also the lord of the figure, so we must consider it as having the greatest influence throughout the Air series of conjunctions. Fortunately, it is well placed in Aquarius, but its restrictive nature is not abated, but less enforcement is required; it is not the repression with which the Victorian period is popularly associated. This configuration suggests self-discipline rather than that pressed upon us. Saturn is also more elevated than Jupiter meaning that it has more northern latitude or less southern. As Jupiter is the ruler of religion or spirituality, morality, tolerance and moderation, and as it is so poorly placed, we might experience more religious intolerance and fervour. It is also the significator of wealth and as such its position cannot promise much, but for those who pursue wealth the means of doing so will be restricted and the results limited.

Leo is a commanding sign and often connected with monarchy, its ruler the Sun is in Capricorn, this must relate to national and world leaders of all kinds and probably detrimentally in the UK at least, because the Sun is cadent. The Winter Solstice occurs just before the conjunction, the point of the new year. Our eyes must be drawn to Mars in Aries in the 10th house, almost as strong as Saturn. Mars is very close to the Ascendant of the 1066 chart, the conjunction Moon very close to its position in the same chart. As already mentioned, this chart describes the coronation of William I, the Conqueror. All of the foregoing suggest a new period in terms of leadership within the UK, but perhaps also outside of it. Whilst this and the Moon’s application by square to the Sun, in signs of short ascension, might indicate changes within the monarchy, it might also be describing a change to the electoral system.

From the economic perspective, short term, high profit investments will be discouraged, emphasis being placed on longer term, low profit but more stable investments. Having mentioned energy and its predicted crisis, it should also be mentioned that as an Air sign, Aquarius will favour alternative energy sources, that is those not from the ground. Nuclear energy is, of course, high on the list, but there are others and a proliferation of the more sustainable will be seen. Therefore, potential investors should look at these industries for the future. Lastly, the conjunction occurs in the 7th house, coupled with the prominence and strength of Mars, we might be tempted to conclude that some kind of hostile or warlike action would ensue, but because Mars and Saturn are in their own signs we can say that they do not hurt their own. This conjunction is linked in many ways to the chart of 1066, and so the results of the 2020 conjunction should hold familiarity for the British. Looking elsewhere for judgement, the likelihood of partnership is inevitable, presumably this will include economic agreement with other nations, probably the European Union, but not limited to that. Perhaps a single currency is inevitable along with a more unified approach generally to global finance. 

The fertility of the Air element will bring about greater interest in environmental matters which will be extended to all areas. This may also include a certain independence relating to energy sources, that is, less dependence on foreign sources of energy. Communications, of course, will progress at a greater pace and this may be linked to further incursions into the privacy of the individual. Certainly, there will be a greater emphasis on personal responsibility, indeed there could be a wholly different approach to government and politics which, given that the Moon applies to the sextile of the conjunction, would be with the consent of the electorate.


So, we can look forward to the oppositions of 2010 to demonstrate a turning point and one which will lead us into the Air triplicity proper.

The subject of the conjunctions of Jupiter and Saturn is enormous and everything pertaining to worldly life falls within their remit, from the rise and fall of civilisations to the individual nativity. This article is presented with all its shortcomings in the hope of encouraging further research and practise. If we are to make sense of the world around us we need look no further than Jupiter and Saturn.

In an article by William Rees-Mogg, the following is quoted, “In 1847 Samuel Jones Loyd, a London banker who became Lord Overstone, wrote his classic description of the natural lifecycle of trade. “We found the state of trade subject to various conditions which are periodically returning; it revolves apparently in an established cycle. But first we find it in a state of quiescence, - next improvement, - growing confidence, - prosperity, - excitement, - overtrading, - convulsion, - pressure, - stagnation, - distress, - ending again in quiescence.” i

An interesting cycle from Jupiter to Saturn and back again.


At the conclusion of this article, on 20 January 2009, Barack Obama was inaugurated as the American President. As American economics are at the bottom of these recent financial disasters, it is reasonable to look at his words. Note that this speech was made just a few days before the Jupiter-Saturn trine of 21 November 2008 completed its separation.  The following quotations are taken from Obama’s inaugural speech and reflect some of the predictions made above: 

“… Our economy is badly weakened, a consequence of greed and irresponsibility on the part of some, but also our collective failure to make hard choices and prepare the nation for a new age.

“…each day brings further evidence that the ways we use energy strengthen our adversaries and threaten our planet.

“… It has not been the path for the faint-hearted - for those who prefer leisure over work, or seek only the pleasures of riches and fame.

“… We will restore science to its rightful place, and wield technology’s wonders to raise health care’s quality and lower its cost. We will harness the sun and the winds and the soil to fuel our cars and run our factories. And we will transform our schools and colleges and universities to meet the demands of a new age.

“…Nor is the question before us whether the market is a force for good or ill. 

“…Its power to generate wealth and expand freedom is unmatched, but this crisis has reminded us that without a watchful eye, the market can spin out of control - and that a nation cannot prosper long when it favours only the prosperous. The success of our economy has always depended not just on the size of our Gross Domestic Product, but on the reach of our prosperity; on our ability to extend opportunity to every willing heart - not out of charity, but because it is the surest route to our common good. 

“…we will work tirelessly to lessen the nuclear threat, and roll back the spectre of a warming planet.

“…nor can we consume the world’s resources without regard to effect. For the world has changed, and we must change with it 

“…What is required of us now is a new era of responsibility…”

These words indicate that change of attitude prerequisite for the forthcoming conjunction in Aquarius and following the first in Air. However, it will be an uphill struggle whilst we remain under the influence of Earth, “old habits die hard” and enforcement will follow.



Sue Ward 2009 & 2020


[i] Messier (1769 P1)

[ii] Janus

[iii] This prediction was published at on 16th November 2008 under the title “Cold Comfort Farm”.

[iv] BBC News 12th December 2008

[v] Times Online, 12 September 2008.